Wednesday, August 26, 2020

The Aboriginals People And Cultural Samples †

Question: Talk about the Aboriginals People And Cultural. Answer: Presentation Not at all like most nations whose history is obviously recorded, most Australians have a scrappy comprehension of their indigenous conventions of their countys first individuals. The Aboriginals individuals involved Australia before the Europeans showed up. The British were the main individuals to show up in Australia as they were scanning for new provinces subsequent to losing America during the American Revolution. The main British armada of boats moored into Botany Bay on the eighteenth January 1788 however later moved to Sydney Harbor on 26th January. It is accepted that the primary motivation behind why the British searched out Australia was to decongest their country jails and to settle a portion of her absolved residents. Likewise with different provinces, Britain began by attacking the Aboriginals in ousting them from their properties, contaminating them with ailments that their invulnerability couldn't battle prompting passings and power some of them into subjugation. Intrusion Subsequent to showing up in Sydney, Australia in 1788, the British did likewise they did with the American Indians. They constrained the Aborigines from the prolific terrains. Simultaneously, numerous indigenous individuals were slaughtered as they attempted to oppose and to ensure their territories. Numerous clans of the Aborigines vanished totally in light of starvation. The food that they used to get unreservedly from their property was not, at this point accessible. The opportunity to meander openly in their territory was shortened ( Oxley Stewart, 2017). The individuals who endure were constrained into bondage, ladies, and youngsters exposed to brutal working conditions doing everything as certain ladies were detained and utilized as sex slaves. The Aborigines were exposed to destitution and dedicated conditions (Gammage, 2011). Social Aspects The Aborigines had their own social accepts some time before the British colonized them. The appearance of the British represented an incredible danger to their way of life. The British had an alternate view of information, which was not the same as that of the British. The British accepted that their way of life was increasingly better than that of the first inhabitants of Australia. They additionally had dissimilar perspectives on how they saw information. (Behrendt, 2012) They totally cleared out the first instruction arrangement of the natives and supplanted it with their arrangement of training. They that an individual having their instruction was talented and subsequently appropriate to be utilized in their homesteads. The Europeans minimized the natives to the degree that state-of-the-art history will in general disregard their commitment and effect on the Australian culture and customs. Over 90% of the natives kicked the bucket due to starvation, sicknesses and capital punish ments ( Oxley Stewart, 2017). Wellbeing and Diseases Upon appearance, the British presented fatal illnesses that were not in Australia initially. The rush of plague sicknesses like smallpox, flu, and measles spread out quickly and demolished numerous Indigenous people group, of which half of them were executed by smallpox (together, 2012). Ladies and young ladies who were detained as sex slaves likewise contracted dangerous sexual transmitted ailments which slaughtered a significant number of them and some tainting their mates. As indicated by Edward Wilson and Argus seventeenth March 1856, they composed we have contaminated them with sicknesses which have decayed the bones of their grown-ups and made such scarcely any kids as are conceived among them a distress and a torment from the exact moment of their introduction to the world. The greater part of the indigenous inhabitants of Australia kicked the bucket and most networks got wiped out from the substance of the earth. As most grown-ups passed on of illnesses, kids kicked the bucke t of lack of healthy sustenance and craving, as they had nobody to deal with them (Hill, 2006). Clashes The development of British settlements prompts opening of new provinces in Tasmania came about to consistent clashes between the neighborhood natives and the pilgrim aces. The result of these contentions was mass killings and enormous obliteration of property having a place with the natives. Rivalry for land and other regular assets that were accessible around then quickened the contentions between the British and natives. The fundamental purpose behind the opposition was to make more land for the pioneers who were moving out of Britain to Australia. Chronicled reports show that slaughters of Indigenous individuals frequently appeared as mass shootings or driving gatherings of individuals off precipices. This was in an offered to decrease the quantities of the natives so Britain could abuse Australia with no impedance (AIATSIS, 2009). End Australia was a key advantage for Britain has she required a spot that would oblige her residents that were at first living in the USA after the American Revolution. What's more, in an offer to settle her detainees, Australia end up being a decent other option. The Aborigines issues started the second the primary boat moored in Sydney. Remote illnesses, consistent clashes, mass killings, and outside culture immediately came in slaughtering huge numbers of them. References Oxley, D., Stewart, H. M. (2017). Advanced panopticon. Recovered from,_1788-1868 AIATSIS. (2009). Recovered from Aboriginal examinations Press: and-boondocks struggle Behrendt, P. (2012). Indigenous Australia for Dummies. Wiley Publishing Australia Pty ltd. Gammage, B. (2011). The Biggest Estate on Earth. Slope, E. F. (2006). Government in Australia. Recovered from Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line: ssi/chapter4.htm together, A. (2012). Australians together. Recovered from Colonization:

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Why Did Fascism Rise in Europe During the 1920s? Could It Have in the 1930s US?

What sort of monetary condition would grasp Fascism? What sort of society would permit their country’s opportunities and future to be put into one dictator’s hands? Germany was encircled by apparent powers of underhandedness. The abuse of dread from the French toward the West and the Russians toward the East would break the soul of the German individuals. The dread of these two powers against a nationalized Germany would be utilized by Adolf Hitler to pick up power. In Italy, Benito Mussolini utilized collusions with the Catholic Church, associations, and industry managers to increase political force. That, alongside utilizing beast power against his political rivals, Mussolini’s type of Fascism was step by step worked with eleven years of extreme political moving. Both Hitler and Mussolini exploited a world of politics to shape another grandiose perfect, one party rule, a perfect that would prompt a second acceleration in the mid twentieth century. World War I finished seriously for the Prussians. They were broken into littler countries. Grounds were taken from them. Their techniques for riches gathering from past ventures were held onto away from them. Any potential methods of monetary steadiness were looking more hopeless with the continuation of the reparations coming out of the Great War. In any event, when the new Germany created riches, the French would remove it from them as a result of late installments. There was no budgetary expectation in light of the fact that the French were so persevering with their exacting authorization of the Treaty of Versailles. The suffering retaliation that the French heads had towards Germany after WWI was inevitably seen by Germans as eagerness. The heartless demeanor of the French entrepreneurs formed into a general German aversion for the current industrialist development. Toward the East there was likewise a recently shaped socialist Russia that was developing in structure and force. There was a nervousness among the German individuals with what was happening in Russia. By pariahs, socialism was comprehended as essentially lost private property. The loss of private property was something that the new Furher, or pioneer, of Germany would profess to ensure. Abusing the people’s tension for a state-claimed financial framework was a fundamental device utilized by Hitler. Germany didn’t need to resemble the covetous French entrepreneurs, nor did they need to resemble the War-Communist, Stalin-drove Russians. These two powers to either side of Germany made a vacuum of thoughts. Inside this vacuum, Hitler constrained his own thoughts that in 1926 he spread out in his work Mein Kampf . Now of Germany’s financial dilapidation, Hitler could have sold the German close to anything particularly on the grounds that it was neither like the French nor the Russian separate monetary prospects. Hitler likewise utilized the Jews as his own entrepreneur substitutes for why the nation was in such financial risk. He utilized this as a mobilizing cry, an interruption for something to move against at home. All they needed to do was to kill the Jews, follow Furher, and he would lead Germany back to being a reunified politically influential nation. Benito Mussolini in Italy went another course. After he was chosen Prime Minister in 1922 he gradually utilized political power to pick up and look after force. He picked up the help of the Catholic Church by ordering Catholic school for youngsters. He some way or another adjusted himself to the two associations and industry managers by commanding an eight hour workday and liberating the businesses of back installments from WWI. What's more, so as to get his way in the chosen government he would utilize his apparently interminable political capacity to discourage the chosen nonconformists. He would undermine or even kill any individual who restricted his ascent to control. â€Å"I declare†¦. before the Italian people†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦that only i accept the political, good and notable obligation regarding everything that has occurred. Italy needs harmony and calm, work and quiet. I will give these things with adoration if conceivable and with power if essential. † Peace by means of power? By one way or another that doesn’t appear to be conceivable, however the fundamentalist government drove by its Il Duce, or pioneer, got its direction. Killing, not Jews as Hitler was then doing, however dissidents in Italian spots of intensity. In the 1930’s America it was a critical time monetarily. Individuals were casting a ballot with their stomachs and they were listening attentively in following the authority of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. FDR was a famous American pioneer as he was casted a ballot into the most elevated office multiple times. America was not exactly as broken as Germany might have been. America despite everything had its beliefs unblemished as confirm by its solid restriction to FDRs endeavored alteration to the Constitution adding six individuals to the Supreme Court. Regardless of the money related hardships that the American individuals were encountering during the 1930s, Fascism was excessively unique for request to the Americans. They were excessively glad for their current American majority rule government to ever be sufficiently affected to change the belief system from an industrialist popular government towards a fundamentalist despot. Americans were significantly more inspired by FDR’s ‘tweaks’ than in a total government redesign as either Mussolini or Hitler would have supported. With a flourishing extremist government, when is sufficient, enough? When managing one party rule there will never be actually a genuine halting point. Regardless of whether it was somebody inside the country, similar to the dissidents in Italy or the Jews of Germany, or an outside danger, similar to the socialists of Russia or the French Capitalists, there will consistently be a restricting gathering. It makes one wonder whether a fruitful WWII battle by Italy and Germany would have in the long run set them in opposition to one another?

Sunday, August 16, 2020

The truth behind 100% pass rates in final exams

The truth behind 100% pass rates in final exams The truth behind 100% pass rates in final exams “Those wanting a guaranteed qualification are advised to apply to Durham, Worcester, Oxford, Liverpool, Surrey, Bath, University of East London, Abertay, Arts University Bournemouth, Sunderland or Edinburgh”. So says The Times in a recent piece about the institutions most likely to award degrees to students taking the final exams of their degrees. But it’s not intended as a recommendation: the newspaper is “naming and shaming” these institutions â€" which include prestigious Oxbridge Universities and Russell Group members â€" for not failing a single final-year student. The report cites not only these eleven universities, at which 100% of final-year students were awarded a degree, but also a number of others â€" again including elite Russell Group institutions â€" where at least 99% of students who entered their final exams were awarded a degree. Is having every student pass a bad thing? The 100% pass rate feeds into the ongoing debate about university standards. Standards are, perhaps inevitably, pretty much always deemed to be falling, especially by those who are critical of universities and Higher Education in the UK. Recent stories about the rising proportion of undergraduates achieving First Class degrees were similarly interpreted as indicative of falling standards. Vigilance about the standards of university degrees is, in and of itself, a healthy enough thing, especially given the trend in recent years to position universities as service providers and their students as “customers”: given the cost of a university education these days it’s reasonable to assume that anything less than a degree at the end of it all would result in dissatisfied “customers”! Are students really getting an easier ride these days? Perhaps, but it’s extremely difficult to tell for certain, and it’s not as simple as the bald statistic makes it sound. For one thing, the structure of degree courses has changed far more than the “falling standards” narrative acknowledges, as have approaches to teaching. The article in The Times measures its 100% pass rate stat against students taking their “finals” â€" but for many if not most university courses this is an outdated concept. Where once final-year summative exams â€" or “finals” â€" taken at the very end of a three- or four-year course determined the classification of the entire degree, these days many degree courses are entirely modular. Marks for exams taken at the end of the first semester of the second year are weighted equally with those taken in the final semester of the course. This has several implications. Firstly, there’s nothing particularly special about “finals” in many institutions: like any other exams, they reflect performance in the modules taken that semester. Poor performance in these exams doesn’t necessarily mean a poor performance overall. Secondly, modular degrees give students and their instructors a far better sense of their progress than traditional degree programmes where the final exams were the be-all and end-all. Failing students are identified much earlier and can be targeted for additional support, placed on probation, or, in rare circumstances, advised to retake a year or drop out altogether. It might once have been possible for a student to muddle through three years of lectures without learning the information and skills they needed to obtain their degree â€" and for this only to become apparent after they failed their finals. But these days, if a university’s academic assessment and pastoral care structures are up to the job, virtually no students should be entered into their “finals” if there’s a reasonable chance they’ll fail to obtain a degree. A duty of care It’s in the interests of everyone in society â€" from students to employers to the universities themselves â€" that confidence in Higher Education standards remains high. But allowing students to enter their final round of exams without being virtually assured of obtaining a degree doesn’t necessarily signify rigour; in fact, it arguably indicates the opposite: that universities have missed the opportunity to identify those in need of additional support, and failed in their duty to provide a quality educational experience to those students. Perhaps, instead of viewing low failure rates with suspicion, we should celebrate them as a sign that universities are closely monitoring the progress of their students and safeguarding their interests. And maybe, just maybe, you should read that list in The Times as a recommendation after all… You may also like... Universities’ financial prospects: should we be worried? Its high time universities move past BTEC snobbery Why is London attracting so many fresh graduates? degreesexamsfinal yearoxbridgerussell groupstudent news

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Socialization Of Poverty America - 1552 Words

The Socialization of Poverty. Envision America different from what we know. A different, yet real America, which exists in a time unknown, an America that is no longer governed by hate and cruelty. Imagine parents no longer struggling to pay the bills, no people lying ill on the streets, or children starving at night. A time where a specific economic status does not evoke disapproval, crime, and suspicions. Imagine America healing and progressing from its earlier judgments and degradation of people. Where we set aside our socialized ideas, to allow a world of opportunities and chances once inconceivable to our ancestors. This is the world image which America continually seeks and aims to acquire, yet in our modern age poverty remains a†¦show more content†¦These are characteristics which we have no control over yet drastically influence our life, such as race, ethnicity, biological sex, class, etc. Harro’s article is important, not only because it addresses how we learn through experience, but how we notice the effects ascribed factors have in one s life and our value in a world where all the rules and regulations involved with social and economic factors are already distinguished.Through our first form of socialization among our family, these rules and regulations become abundantly clear to us. Here we are first taught the norms and values of our society, including how one should interact, speak, live, what types of education are necessary or what economic status is acceptable. Yet, as we grow older we move to a new unit of socialization within institutions. At a school environment, we begin to learn how society sees us and others. Our peers assess us, make us question what we had previously learned and further educate or enhance our former beliefs. Through teachers and administration, we understand the rules, both written and unwritten, and the instances where these rules become unfair, favoring some people over another. Eventually proceeding youth, we emerge out of our shells to reality with a pre-manufactured set of ideals and norms of the world around us. Yet, one might still ask how does this affect poverty? Throughout history, impoverished people have struggled with others seeing andShow MoreRelatedThe Socialization Of Poverty : America1402 Words   |  6 PagesThe Socialization of Poverty Imagine America different from what we know. A different yet real America, which existed in the past, an American governed by hate and cruelty, fully equipped with racial segregation policies. 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In Richard Peet’s Inequality and Poverty: A Marxist-Geographic Theory, he synthesizes Marxist theory and explains how inequality and poverty persist under theRead More Parenting Across Cultures Essay996 Words   |  4 Pagesstability and better education. Some immigrants face obstacles when they relocate to North America, such as language barriers, discipline issues, and little involvement in their child’s education. Many of the immigrants first language is not English, their language barrier may hinder them from communicating with employers and classroom educators (Arens, Clevenger Haynes, 2004). Some countries in North America prohibit corporal punishment which can be a challenge for some immigrant families. I mmigrantRead MoreAmerican Families, By Bill Moyers And The Stanleys1707 Words   |  7 Pagesthe Stanleys (a white family) would face struggles throughout the next twenty years which can be related to by nearly any middle class family you might approach; however, unlike most, these families’ struggles were documented. The United States of America is generally regarded as the country where dreams come true--where financial trouble is a mere horror story, and every family is happy and complete with two point five children and a white picket fence. This, however, is not so commonly the case.Read MoreThe Importance Of Socialization1351 Words   |  6 PagesSocialization is not something that just happens and then you are done, it is a process that continues throughout your life. It is how individuals gain their self-identity, as well as physical, mental and social skills that enables us to function in society (Kendall, 2017, p.87). Socialization aids us in being able to communicate with others in different environments and situations. Socialization allows a society to regenerate by passing on its culture through one generation to another. FamilyRead MoreSocial Label Of Being A Girl937 Words   |  4 Pagesthese things, it was almost like second nature to think and act the way that I did and sti ll do. My socialization skills, which to put simply are the accepted ways in society to behave or how I express myself, have all been shaped by the fact that I am a female. The socialization process is how we learn to act or to follow norms along with what to believe. There have been many agents of socialization in my life, which are the people and types of situations that teach us as human beings how to act andRead MoreWhy isn’t Life Expectancy in the United States Higher? Essay927 Words   |  4 Pagessurprisingly lower than expected in places such as the United States. America ranks twenty-fourth on the life expectancy list under Japan, Australia, France Spain and Italy. What causes this disparity in the ranking and statistics in an advanced industrialized society such as the United States? There are major statistical factors that influence the United States ranking in world life expectancy, involving education level, poverty, race and gender. The diverse groups of people living in the United StatesRead MoreThe Harvest / La Cosecha1490 Words   |  6 Pages The Harvest/La Cosecha Anticipatory socialization Anticipatory socialization is an agent of socialization process, facilitated by social interactions, in which non-group-members learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they aspire to join, so as to ease their entry into the group and help them interact competently once they have been accepted by it. Many of the farmers featured in the film have started crops as early as 5 or 8 years of age as soon as they came to live in the United

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Think, Feel, Act The Story Of Emotion - 1869 Words

Think, Feel, Act: The Story of Emotion Introduction Psychology, according to the Webster Dictionary, is â€Å"the science or study of the mind and behavior, the way a person or group thinks† (Psychology, 2012). Altogether then, it’s about people, how they think, feel, and act in various situations. It is no surprise then to find the field of psychology has grown as diverse as the questions it seeks to answer. Cognitive psychologists tackle the â€Å"think† question, dealing with cognitions, consciousness, rationality, and the internal experience of the mind. In stark contrast, Behavioral psychologists deal with the question of â€Å"act,† using strict measurements of behavior to study the nature of organisms. But what about the question of â€Å"feel?† Emotion plays pivotal roles in the human experience, to the point where its absence or mis-expression classifies as psychological disease, but where does it fall between the two perspectives? When experienced internally, it seems a mental state, a complex combination of physiological arousal and a subjective experience of the mind, falling under into the realms of the Cognitive perspective. Yet externally, and often experimentally, humans observe emotion based on the presence of specific behavioral cues. So what do both psychological perspectives have to contribute to the understanding of emotion? Where do they succeed, where do they fall short, and most importantly, how should this influence the study of emotion in the modern age?Show MoreRelatedThe Things They Carries by Tim O ´brien768 Words   |  3 Pagesthe â€Å"story-truth.† The novel itself, The Things They Carried, is comprised of many different stories based on the author Tim O’Brien’s service in the Vietnam war. 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Because the boy’s father needs to pay his responsibility to his family and the people who he loved, so his rude behavior and act makes his son hate him for a short time. After the boy notice his family’s financial situation, then he realize it’s not easy be an adult to making life run in the society,Read MoreAnalysis Of Cicero s Oration : An Artifact Where Persuasion Is Working At Its Best.966 Words   |  4 Pagesseen across many contemporary artifacts, but Blackfish is an artifact where persuasion is working at its best. Blackfish is a documentary that was released in 2013 by Gabriela Cowperthwaite. This documentary tells the story of killer whales in captivity, with a large portion of the story surrounding Tilikum. Tilikum is an orca who has severely hurt or killed several trainers while in captivity. The documentary’s website states that the film aims to, â€Å"challenge us to consider our relationship to natureRead MoreAnalysis Of John Knowless Ode To Jealousy1405 Words   |  6 Pagesof our lives everyday, spinning out of control when one is faced with the fact that they are not enough in a certain situation. Jealousy was, and still is, a core emotion is the human race. But why is jealousy such a prevalent emotion in specific situations? Jealousy goes hand in hand with one’s insecurities and shows itself when one feels that they are not enough or cannot fulfill a need of someone else. Even when we do not have something that someone else has, this power couple of jealousy and ourRead MoreRay Bradbury s Fahrenheit 4511408 Words   |  6 Pagesthe rules. The Giver on the other hand is a utopian society which ends up falling into a dystopian society. The society in The Giver can be called utopian which means that it has highly desirable or near perfect qualities. However, throughout the story one can see how it gradually turns more and more dystopian or undesirable. In this society there are many rules that one must follow. For example families must have exactly two children one male and one female, also people are not allowed to be outRead MoreInside the World of Boys: Behind the Mask of Masculinity by William Pollack751 Words   |  4 Pagesfourteen-year-old boy, he is doing badly in school and he might fail algebra, but when teacher or his parent ask about it, he said everything is just fine. He hide his true identity behind the mask, and let no one see his true self.† After read the story, I think the story is really useful source to write an essay about how boy become men and they are emotionless. Pollack is a well-respected author of a number of books, to guide boys successfully through the many challenges they face. Pollack is the DirectorRead MoreMonstrous Desires In Karen Russells Vampires In The Lemon Grove1014 Words   |  5 PagesMonstrous desires are not as exclusive as one might think, and in Karen Russell’s short story â€Å"Vampires in the Lemon Grove,† we come to recognize that, despite the fact that the two main characters, Clyde and Magreb, are actual vampires, their â€Å"monstrous† urges are all too familiar- perhaps even quintessentially human. In fact, with careful analysis, specifically through psychological criticism, we, as readers of â€Å"Vampires in the Lemon Grove,† can see that by understanding psychological urges ofRead MoreThe Theory Of Freedom Under An Authoritative Figure1690 Words   |  7 Pagesfollowing the command of officials. This is very similar to the story of Abraham and Isaac, as Abraham compromises his mor als for the sake of obeying. Although the teachers in Milgram’s experiment have the choice to discontinue the experiment, most of the teachers continue because they are reluctant to confront an authority, are fearful of what may happen if they disobey, feel pressure from the instructor, and experience intense emotions that cause them to behave irrationally. Therefore, humans struggle

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Petrol Retail Sector Free Essays

string(40) " only react to the market fluctuations\." Abstract The oil industry is a very important part or sector of the world economy and should be developed and taken care of in an appropriate manner. It is certainly one retail sector that has had considerable changes and development in its core business. The industry has continually gained popularity and attracted a lot of interest, which has consequently contributed greatly to the development of economies of the countries that deal in it. We will write a custom essay sample on Petrol Retail Sector or any similar topic only for you Order Now This paper gives the macro-environmental analysis and the market research of the oil industry by utilizing the PESTEL model. However, it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that it creates a favorable environment for the smooth operation of the industry. Introduction The petrol retail sector is certainly one retail sector that has had considerable changes and development in its core business. In recent years, the petroleum industry has attracted a lot of interest. This is an industry that contributes greatly to the development of economies of the countries that deal in it (Fleig, 2005, p89). In the past decade, increases in the price of the commodity brought about a big challenge for the retailers of service stations to run lucrative, sustainable and practical businesses, as the increase in the prices resulted to negative impacts on the volume of sales. The industry’s new entrants and new competition presented by some other retail businesses made changes in the industry necessary. The industry of petroleum has seen the introduction of new businesses at the service stations for the purposes of generating income for the business so as to ensure that there is viability and productivity (Sobel 2008, p42). The propagation of service stations, c ontrolled margins of retailer on volume performance and petrol has all brought concern regarding the individual service station’s survival. The economical effects of the fluctuations in the price crude oil have ultimately affected the retailers as well as motorists. The United Kingdom’s price of petrol depends exclusively on the conditions of the international market. This industry is faced with various challenges and changes. The future uncertainty and unpredictability of the exhaustible resources’ supply, such as crude oil influences the price of the crude oil that the global market experiences (Bushell and Stan 2009, p71). Therefore, the demand for energy puts more pressure on the price as the global economy grows faster. The uncertainty about whether the deregulation of the industry of liquid fuel brings a new dimension to the future of the industry. Some of the giant retailers in the industry include Total, the Royal Dutch Shell, ConocoPhilips and Chevron. This paper is going to look at the risk factors associated with the supply of crude oil derivatives like petrol to the West Dulwich shell filling st ation in London. PESTEL Analysis PESTEL analysis, which stands for Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal, is a description of a framework of the macro-environmental factors that are used in the component of environmental scanning of the strategic management. It is part of the analysis of the external environment when carrying out a market research or doing a strategic analysis, and offers an insight into the various macro-environmental factors that should be taken into account by the organization or company (Fleig 2005, p44) It is a fundamental strategic tool that helps in the understanding of the decline or growth of the market, the position of business and operations direction. The increasing significance of ecological or environmental factors in the initial or early years of the twenty first century have introduced green businesses and facilitated extensive use of an up-to-date version of the framework of the model. The following is the PESTEL analysis of the supply of crude oil de rivatives like petrol to the West Dulwich shell filling station in London: Political effects Crude is among the most needed commodities allover the world. Any amount of change in the price of crude oil can lead to both direct and indirect impact on its derivatives, and consequently on the countries’ economy. The OPEC countries are the principal producers of the crude oil that is used worldwide. Therefore, it means that any policy that is made by the organization or some countries within the organization regarding the prices of crude oil will greatly affect the supply of petrol and diesel to the service station (Sobel, 2008, p.34). Any decision taken by the countries within the organization, for instance raising or reducing the prices of crude oil may definitely affect the level of price of the petrol and diesel in the global community markets. Political stability within the countries that produce crude oil is also essential to its availability and also influences its prices to a great deal. For instance, a lot of the crude oil is produced by the countries in the Middle East, and if there is conflict in the region, the drilling of oil will be affected. Lack of political stability such as war or terrorism in the Greenwich region, and even pirates might make it difficult for the products to reach the petrol station due to fear by the suppliers, or even damage to the tankers. Economic effects Demand and supply is balanced by the global oil inventories. If the production of crude oil exceeds its demand, the surplus product can be kept. When the consumption is higher than the demand for the product, then inventories can be tapped so as to be in a position of meeting the rise in demand, and the connection between the prices of oil and the inventories of oil enables correction in both directions (Risk Analysis in Oil Refining Sector, 2008). The supply of crude oil by countries that are not members of OPEC stands at sixty percent of the total oil produced in the world. However, even though their supply is fifty percent more that that of the OPEC community, they do not have adequate reserves to enable them control the prices in the market and can only react to the market fluctuations. You read "Petrol Retail Sector" in category "Essay examples" On the other hand, the OPEC community has the ability of directly influencing the price of crude oil in the market. This is particularl y when the supply of the oil that is produced by the countries that are not members of the community goes down. When the demand for petrol and diesel is high in the Greenwhich region, there will be scramble for available oil thus reducing the supply. This problem can be solved by building adequate reserves for storing the product so that the supply to clients can remain steady when the supply from the source reduces. The cost of production is also another important factor in determining the price of oil within the global market. If the cost of extracting oil and its eventual refining is too high, it means that the prices will also go high, but if it does not cost much to produce it, the prices will go down significantly. It also requires a lot of finances and resources to discover more oil locations and to develop as well as maintain them. If the funds and resources are available, there would be more discoveries of oil production sites and the quantity produces and supplied to the final consumer will be large (Simmons, 2005, p.23). If there are no funds together with the resources to enable expansion of the production, the supply will go down and the prices will rise, thus making it difficult for the service station to acquire it. The brokers of oil servers the link between sellers and buyers of the product, and do contract trading for future oil delivery referred to as ‘futures.’ Consumers buy futures for hedging against the increases in the prices of oil that could considerably impact their profitability. Producers of oil sell the contracts of oil futures so as to lock in a price for a particular period and the brokers buy oil futures to give promise of future delivery of the product as a given price. This implies that the oil brokers play a significant role in determining the price of oil in the global market because they are the link between the buyers and the sellers (Anderson and Marhadour, 2007, p.102). Social effects Human populations in the region can also affect the supply because the demand will be high. The population in the Greenwich region is too high and the demand for petrol and diesel may raise, hence the supply decreasing (Fleig, 2005, p.65). Frequent strikes by the tanker drives may also affect the supply because there will be no one to bring the products to the service station. The need to observe laws such us the employment of high qualified, and not to employ underage drivers, but who may be qualified may lead to lack of enough drivers to do the work of transportation. The law also sets a minimum wage for the workers and this would affect the supply of petrol and diesel because there might not be enough funds to employ many drivers to transport the products. Technological effects The world of today depends almost exclusively on technology, and exercises such as the drilling of oil requires high levels of it. The equipment used for the process is very sophisticated as they are required to dig deep into the ground and fetch the oil. The oil companies also need to ensure that proper equipment are put in place to avoid things such a soil spillage which can be hazardous to the environment and also cause losses (Anderson and Marhadour, 2007, p.108). This equipment are very expensive and the oil companies are forced to use a lot of money to ensure that all the technological requirements are employed so that production can be enhances and risks reduced as much as possible. When all these production costs are factored in the whole process of production, the final price in the market becomes high. The need to have the latest technology at the service stations such as epos automation systems raises the cost of operation. Environmental effects In the few past years, the international community has experiences a number of events that have consequently had great influence on the prices of crude oil. Such events include the Hurricane Katrina and some other kinds of tropical cyclone that have struck a significant part of the globe. This resulted in the prices of oil going up by a very huge percentage, which makes it difficult to acquire it in large quantities. Excessive drilling of oil by some oil companies has led to the exhaustion of the sources as well as environmental degradation. This has led to some governments such as that of the United States of America and United Kingdom to prohibiting the exploration in some regions (Black, 2012, p.82). The major aim of these policies is to preserve the resources so as to ensure that there is continuity or sustainability. When these policies are put in place, the quantity of oil produced reduces, thus demand exceeding supply, which consequently forces the prices to go up. Nonetheless, these policies that are introduced by the governments, which aims at limiting the extraction of oil exerts a lot of pressure on the companies that produce oil to not only finding ways of increasing efficiency, but also finding alternative sources of fuel. These initiatives are very slow and difficult because of the considerable financing required energy and time that go into things like researching and production of such products. More so, when an alternative sources of energy is introduced into the market, there is a substantial time lag in which the designing and production of new products that are compatible is done (Beamish, 2006, p.88). It then can take even more time for the clients to know about the existence or availability of the products and be willing to make investments in them. Extreme weather conditions also affect the production of the crude oil. For instance, when there is a lot of rain, it becomes very difficult to access the sites of oil drilling. The machines that are used in the process of drilling oil might also be damaged by the unfavorable weather or their operation may just be affected. This makes it difficult for the crude oil to be produced in large quantities, thus forcing the prices to rise (Bushell, and Stan, 2009). Legal effects Different countries have different requirements for one to be allowed to start and operate a business. The same case applies to the ownership of a service station as well as the oil companies. If the requirements by the government are too strict, there will be a few suppliers in the market, and in turn the price of fuel will rise (Assilzadeh, and Yang, 2010, p.240). Conclusion The oil industry is a very important part or sector of the world economy that should be developed and taken care of in an appropriate manner. Problems such as strikes should be avoided by timely payment so that supply can remain steady. The company should invest in the latest technology that is related to the business to ensure fast delivery of petrol and diesel. Proper plans should also be put in place to ensure that the costs of production and operation of oil companies are reduces and the legal requirements made as flexible as possible. To avoid shortages in supply due to political factors, the company should not depend on a single source of supply, specifically from the OPEC countries. This problem can also help by ensuring that the Greenwich region is safe for any kind of business and the petrol station should also consider using oil pipelines as opposed to tankers. References (2008, 12). Risk Analysis in Oil Refining Sector. Retrieved 12, 2008, from Akkartal, A., and F. Sunar, 2008, ‘The usage of radar images in oil spill detection. The International Archives of the Photgrammetry.’ Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences 37, no. Part B8: 271-76. Anderson, A, and Marhadour A, 2007, ‘Slick PRThe media politics of the Prestige oil spill.’ Science Communication 29, no. 1: 96-115. Assilzadeh, H, and Yang G, 2010, ‘Designation of an interactive oil spill management system.’ Disaster Prevention and Management 19, no. 2: 233-42. Beamish, T D, 2006, Silent Spill: The Organization of an Industrial Crisis. London: MIT Press. Black, B C, 2012, Crude Reality: Petroleum in World History. New York: Rowman Littlefield. Bushell, S, and Stan J, 2009, The Spill: Personal Stories from the Exxon Valdez Disaster. AK: Epicenter Press. Fleig, F, 2005, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (Harvard Historical Studies). Harvard University Press. Simmons, S, 2005, Twilight in the Desert The Coming Saudi Oil Shock and the World Economy, John Wiley Sons. Sobel R, 2008, The Money Manias: The Eras of Great Speculation in America, Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press (Rowman Littlefield). Yeomans, M, 2006, Oil: Anatomy of an Industry, New Press. 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Monday, May 4, 2020

1. THE EMBODIMENT OF TAO Essay Example For Students

1. THE EMBODIMENT OF TAO Essay Even the finest teaching is not the Tao itself. Even the finest name is insufficient to define it. Without words, the Tao can be experienced, and without a name, it can be known. To conduct ones life according to the Tao, is to conduct ones life without regrets; to realize that potential within oneself which is of benefit to all. Though words or names are not required to live ones life this way, to describe it, words and names are used, that we might better clarify the way of which we speak, without confusing it with other ways in which an individual might choose to live. Through knowledge, intellectual thought and words, the manifestations of the Tao are known, but without such intellectual intent we might experience the Tao itself. Both knowledge and experience are real, but reality has many forms, which seem to cause complexity. By using the means appropriate, we extend ourselves beyond the barriers of such complexity, and so experience the Tao. Up to Ind ex 2. LETTING GO OF COMPARISONS We cannot know the Tao itself, nor see its qualities direct, but only see by differentiation, that which it manifests. Thus, that which is seen as beautiful is beautiful compared with that which is seen as lacking beauty; an action considered skilled is so considered in comparison with another, which seems unskilled. That which a person knows he has is known to him by that which he does not have, and that which he considers difficult seems so because of that which he can do with ease. One thing seems long by comparison with that which is, comparatively, short. One thing is high because another thing is low; only when sound ceases is quietness known, and that which leads is seen to lead only by being followed. In comparison, the sage, in harmony with the Tao, needs no comparisons, and when he makes them, knows that comparisons are judgements, and just as relative to he who makes them, and to the situation, as they are to th at on which the judgement has been made. Through his experience, the sage becomes aware that all things change, and that he who seems to lead, might also, in another situation, follow. So he does nothing; he neither leads nor follows. That which he does is neither big nor small; without intent, it is neither difficult, nor done with ease. His task completed, he then lets go of it; seeking no credit, he cannot be discredited. Thus, his teaching lasts for ever, and he is held in high esteem. Up to Index 3. WITHOUT SEEKING ACCLAIM By retaining his humility, the talented person who is also wise, reduces rivalry. The person who possesses many things, but does not boast of his possessions, reduces temptation, and reduces stealing. Those who are jealous of the skills or things possessed by others, most easily themselves become possessed by envy. Satisfied with his possessions, the sage eliminates the need to steal; at one with the Tao, he remains free of envy, and has no need of titles. By being supple, he retains his energy. He minimizes his desires, and does not train himself in guile, nor subtle words of praise. By not contriving, he retains the harmony of his inner world, and so remains at peace within himself. It is for reasons such as these, that an administration which is concerned with the welfare of those it serves, does not encourage status and titles to be sought, nor encourage rivalry. Ensuring a sufficiency for all, helps in reducing discontent. Administrators who are wise do not seek honours for themselves, nor act with guile towards the ones they serve. Up to Index 4. THE UNFATHOMABLE TAO It is the nature of the Tao, that even though used continuously, it is replenished naturally, never being emptied, and never being over-filled, as is a goblet which spills its contents upon the ground. The Tao therefore cannot be said to waste its charge, but constantly remains a source of nourishment for those who are not so full of self as to be unable to partake of it. When tempered beyond its natural state, the finest blade will lose its edge. Even the hardest tempered sword, against water, is of no avail, and will shatter if struck against a rock. When untangled by a cutting edge, the cord in little pieces lies, and is of little use. Just as the finest swordsmith tempers the finest blade with his experience, so the sage, with wisdom, tempers intellect. With patience, tangled cord may be undone, and problems which seem insoluble, resolved. With wise administrators, all can exist in unity, each with the other, because no man need feel that he exists, only as the shadow of his brilliant brother. Through conduct not contrived for gain, awareness of the Tao may be maintained. This is how its mysteries may be found. Up to Index 5. WITHOUT INTENTION Nature acts without intent, so cannot be described as acting with benevolence, nor malevolence to any thing. In this respect, the Tao is just the same, though in reality it should be said that nature follows the rule of Tao. Therefore, even when he seems to act in manner kind or benevolent, the sage is not acting with such intent, for in conscious matters such as these, he is amoral and indifferent. The sage retains tranquility, and is not by speech or thought disturbed, and even less by action which is contrived. His actions are spontaneous, as are his deeds towards his fellow men. By this means he is empty of desire, and his energy is not drained from him. Up to Index 6. COMPLETION Like the sheltered, fertile valley, the meditative mind is still, yet retains its energy. Since both energy and stillness, of themselves, do not have form, it is not through the senses that they may be found, nor understood by intellect alone, although, in nature, both abound. In the meditative state, the mind ceases to differentiate between existences, and that which may or may n ot be. It leaves them well alone, for they exist, not differentiated, but as one, within the meditative mind. Up to Index 7. SHEATHING THE LIGHT When living by the Tao, awareness of self is not required, for in this way of life, the self exists, and is also non-existent, being conceived of, not as an existentiality, nor as non-existent. The sage does not contrive to find his self, for he knows that all which may be found of it, is that which it manifests to sense and thought, which side by side with self itself, is nought. It is by sheathing intellects bright light that the sage remains at one with his own self, ceasing to be aware of it, by placing it behind. Detached, he is unified with his external world, by being selfless he is fulfilled; thus his selfhood is assured. Up to Index 8. THE WAY OF WATER Great good is said to be like water, sustaining life with no conscious striving, flowing naturally, providing nourishment, found even in places which des iring man rejects. In this way it is like the Tao itself. Like water, the sage abides in a humble place; in meditation, without desire; in thoughtfulness, he is profound, and in his dealings, kind. In speech, sincerity guides the man of Tao, and as a leader, he is just. In management, competence is his aim, and he ensures the pacing is correct. Because he does not act for his own ends, nor cause unnecessary conflict, he is held to be correct in his actions towards his fellow man. Up to Index 9. WITHOUT EXTREMES The cup is easier to hold when not filled to overflowing. The blade is more effective if not tempered beyond its mettle. Gold and jade are easier to protect if possessed in moderation. He who seeks titles, invites his own downfall. The sage works quietly, seeking neither praise nor fame; completing what he does with natural ease, and then retiring. This is the way and nature of Tao. Up to Index 10. CLEANING THE DARK MIRROR Maintaining unity is virtuous, for the inner world of thought is one with the external world of action and of things. The sage avoids their separation, by breathing as the sleeping babe, and thus maintaining harmony. He cleans the dark mirror of his mind, so that it reflects without intent. He conducts himself without contriving, loving the people, and not interfering. He cultivates without possessing, thus providing nourishment, he remains receptive to changing needs, and creates without desire. By leading from behind, attending to that which must be done, he is said to have attained the mystic state. Up to Index 11. THE UTILITY OF NON-EXISTENCE Though thirty spokes may form the wheel, it is the hole within the hub which gives the wheel utility. It is not the clay the potter throws, which gives the pot its usefulness, but the space within the shape, from which the pot is made. Without a door, the room cannot be entered, and without windows it is dark. Such is the utility of non-existence. Up to Index 12. THE REPRESSION OF DESIRES Through sight, the colours may be seen, but too much colour blinds us. Apprehending the tones of sound, too much sound might make us deaf, and too much flavour deadens taste. When hunting for sport, and chasing for pleasure, the mind easily becomes perplexed. He who collects treasures for himself more easily becomes anxious. The wise person fulfills his needs, rather than sensory temptations. Up to Index 13. UNMOVED AND UNMOVING The ordinary man seeks honour, not dishonour, cherishing success and abominating failure, loving life, whilst fearing death. The sage does not recognise these things, so lives his life quite simply. The ordinary man seeks to make himself the centre of his universe; the universe of the sage is at his centre. He loves the world, and thus remains unmoved by things with which others are concerned. He acts with humility, is neither moved nor moving, and can therefore be truste d in caring for all things. Up to Index 14. EXPERIENCING THE MYSTERY The Tao is abstract, and therefore has no form, it is neither bright in rising, nor dark in sinking, cannot be grasped, and makes no sound. Without form or image, without existence, the form of the formless, is beyond defining, cannot be described, and is beyond our understanding. It cannot be called by any name. Standing before it, it has no beginning; even when followed, it has no end. In the now, it exists; to the present apply it, follow it well, and reach its beginning. Up to Index 15. THE MANIFESTATION OF THE TAO IN MAN The sage of old was profound and wise; like a man at a ford, he took great care, alert, perceptive and aware. Desiring nothing for himself, and having no desire for change for its own sake, his actions were difficult to understand. Being watchful, he had no fear of danger; being responsive, he had no need of fear. He was courteous like a visiting guest, and as yiel ding as the springtime ice. Having no desires, he was untouched by craving. Receptive and mysterious, his knowledge was unfathomable, causing others to think him hesitant. Pure in heart, like uncut jade, he cleared the muddy water by leaving it alone. By remaining calm and active, the need for renewing is reduced. Up to Index 16. RETURNING TO THE ROOT It is only by means of being that non-being may be found. When society changes from its natural state of flux, to that which seems like chaos, the inner world of the superior man remains uncluttered and at peace. By remaining still, his self detatched, he aids society in its return to the way of nature and of peace. The value of his insight may be clearly seen when chaos ceases. Being one with the Tao is to be at peace, and to be in conflict with it, leads to chaos and dysfunction. When the consistency of the Tao is known, the mind is receptive to its states of change. It is by being at one with the Tao, t hat the sage holds no prejudice against his fellow man. If accepted as a leader of men, he is held in high esteem. Throughout his life, both being and non-being, the Tao protects him. Up to Index 17. LEADERSHIP BY EXCEPTION Man cannot comprehend the infinite; only knowing that the best exists, the second best is seen and praised, and the next, despised and feared. The sage does not expect that others use his criteria as their own. The existence of the leader who is wise is barely known to those he leads. He acts without unnecessary speech, so that the people say, It happened of its own accord. Up to Index 18. THE DECAY OF ETHICS When the way of the Tao is forgotten, kindness and ethics need to be taught; men learn to pretend to be wise and good. All too often in the lives of men, filial piety and devotion arise only after conflict and strife, just as loyal ministers all too often appear, when the people are suppressed. Up to Index 19. RETURNING TO NATU RALNESS It is better merely to live ones life, realizing ones potential, rather than wishing for sanctification. He who lives in filial piety and love has no need of ethical teaching. When cunning and profit are renounced, stealing and fraud will disappear. But ethics and kindness, and even wisdom, are insufficient in themselves. Better by far to see the simplicity of raw silks beauty and the uncarved block; to be one with onself, and with ones brother. It is better by far to be one with the Tao, developing selflessness, tempering desire, removing the wish, but being compassionate. Up to Index 20. BEING DIFFERENT FROM ORDINARY MEN The sage is often envied because others do not know that although he is nourished by the Tao, like them, he too is mortal. He who seeks wisdom is well advised to give up academic ways, and put an end to striving. Then he will learn that yes and no are distinguished only by distinction. It is to the advantage of the sage th at he does not fear what others fear, but it is to the advantage of others that they can enjoy the feast, or go walking, free of hindrance, through the terraced park in spring. The sage drifts like a cloud, having no specific place. Like a newborn babe before it smiles, he does not seek to communicate. In the eyes of those who have more than they need, the sage has nothing, and is a fool, prizing only that which of the Tao is born. The sage may seem to be perplexed, being neither bright nor clear, and to himself, sometimes he seems both dull and weak, confused and shy. Like the ocean at night, he is serene and quiet, but as penetrating as the winter wind. Up to Index 21. FINDING THE ESSENCE OF TAO The greatest virtue is to follow the Tao; how it achieves ! without contriving. The essence of Tao is dark and mysterious, having, itself, no image or form. Yet through its non-being, are found image and form. The essence of Tao is deep and unfathomable, yet it may be known by not trying to know. Up to Index 22. YIELDING TO MAINTAIN INTEGRITY Yield, and maintain integrity. To bend is to be upright; to be empty is to be full. Those who have little have much to gain, but those who have much may be confused by possessions. The wise man embraces the all encompassing; he is unaware of himself, and so has brilliance; not defending himself, he gains distinction; not seeking fame, he receives recognition; not making false claims, he does not falter; and not being quarrelsome, is in conflict with no one. This is why it was said by the sages of old, Yield, and maintain integrity; be whole, and all things come to you. Up to Index 23. ACCEPTING THE IRREVOCABLE Natures way is to say but little; high winds are made still with the turn of the tide, and rarely last all morning, nor heavy rain, all day. Therefore, when talking, remember also to be silent and still. He who follows the natural way is always one with the Tao. H e who is virtuous may experience virtue, whilst he who loses the natural way is easily lost himself. He who is at one with the Tao is at one with nature, and virtue always exists for he who has virtue. To accept the irrevocable is to let go of desire. He who does not have trust in others should not himself be trusted. 24. EXCESS He who stretches beyond his natural reach, does not stand firmly upon the ground; just as he who travels at a speed beyond his means, cannot maintain his pace. He who boasts is not enlightened, and he who is self-righteous does not gain respect from those who are meritous; thus, he gains nothing, and will fall into disrepute. Since striving, boasting and self-righteousness, are all unnecessary traits, the sage considers them excesses, and has no need of them. Up to Index 25. THE CREATIVE PRINCIPLE OF TAO The creative principle unifies the inner and external worlds. It does not depend on time or space, is ever still and yet in motion; thereby it creates all things, and is therefore called the creative and the absolute; its ebb and its flow extend to infinity. We describe the Tao as being great; we describe the universe as great; nature too, we describe as great, and man himself is great. Mans laws should follow natural laws, just as nature gives rise to physical laws, whilst following from universal law, which follows the Tao. Up to Index 26. CENTRING The natural way is the way of the sage, serving as his dwelling, providing his centre deep within, whether in his home or journeying. Even when he travels far, he is not separate from his own true nature. Maintaining awareness of natural beauty, he still does not forget his purpose. Although he may dwell in a grand estate, simplicity remains his guide, for he is full aware, that losing it, his roots as well would disappear. So he is not restless, lest he loses the natural way. Similarly, the peoples leader is not flippant i n his role, nor restless, for these could cause the loss of the roots of leadership. Up to Index 27. FOLLOWING THE TAO The sage follows the natural way, doing what is required of him. Like an experienced tracker, he leaves no tracks; like a good speaker, his speech is fluent; He makes no error, so needs no tally; like a good door, which needs no lock, he is open when it is required of him, and closed at other times; like a good binding, he is secure, without the need of borders. Knowing that virtue may grow from example, this is the way in which the sage teaches, abandoning no one who stops to listen. Thus, from experience of the sage, all might learn, and so might gain. There is mutual respect twixt teacher and pupil, for, without respect, there would be confusion. Up to Index 28. RETAINING INTEGRITY Whilst developing creativity, also cultivate receptivity. Retain the mind like that of a child, which flows like running water. When considering any thing, do not lose its opposite. When thinking of the finite, do not forget infinity; Act with honour, but retain humility. By acting according to the way of the Tao, set others an example. By retaining the integrity of the inner and external worlds, true selfhood is maintained, and the inner world made fertile. Up to Index 29. TAKING NO ACTION The external world is fragile, and he who meddles with its natural way, risks causing damage to himself. He who tries to grasp it, thereby loses it. It is natural for things to change, sometimes being ahead, sometimes behind. There are times when even breathing may be difficult, whereas its natural state is easy. Sometimes one is strong, and sometimes weak, sometimes healthy, and sometimes sick, sometimes is first, and at other times behind. The sage does not try to change the world by force, for he knows that force results in force. He avoids extremes and excesses, and does not become complacent. Up to Index 30. A CAVEAT AGAINST VIOLENCE When leading by the way of the Tao, abominate the use of force, for it causes resistance, and loss of strength, showing the Tao has not been followed well. Achieve results but not through violence, for it is against the natural way, and damages both others and ones own true self. The harvest is destroyed in the wake of a great war, and weeds grow in the fields in the wake of the army. The wise leader achieves results, but does not glory in them; is not proud of his victories, and does not boast of them. He knows that boasting is not the natural way, and that he who goes against that way, will fail in his endeavours. Up to Index 31. MAINTAINING PEACE Weapons of war are instruments of fear, and are abhorred by those who follow the Tao. The leader who follows the natural way does not abide them. The warrior king leans to his right, from whence there comes his generals advice, but the peaceful king looks to his left, where sits his cou nsellor of peace. When he looks to his left, it is a time of peace, and when to the right, a time for sorrow. Weapons of war are instruments of fear, and are not favoured by the wise, who use them only when there is no choice, for peace and stillness are dear to their hearts, and victory causes them no rejoicing. To rejoice in victory is to delight in killing; to delight in killing is to have no self-being. The conduct of war is that of a funeral; when people are killed, it is a time of mourning. This is why even victorious battle should be observed without rejoicing. Up to Index 32. IF THE TAO WERE OBSERVED The Tao is eternal, but does not have fame; like the uncarved block, its worth seems small, though its value to man is beyond all measure. Were it definable, it could then be used to obviate conflict, and the need to teach the way of the Tao; all men would abide in the peace of the Tao; sweet dew would descend to nourish the earth. When the Tao is divided , there is a need for names, for, like the block which is carved, its parts then are seen. By stopping in time from torment and conflict, strife is defeated, and danger averted. The people then seek the wisdom of Tao, just as all Against Cloning Essay