Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Socialization Of Poverty America - 1552 Words

The Socialization of Poverty. Envision America different from what we know. A different, yet real America, which exists in a time unknown, an America that is no longer governed by hate and cruelty. Imagine parents no longer struggling to pay the bills, no people lying ill on the streets, or children starving at night. A time where a specific economic status does not evoke disapproval, crime, and suspicions. Imagine America healing and progressing from its earlier judgments and degradation of people. Where we set aside our socialized ideas, to allow a world of opportunities and chances once inconceivable to our ancestors. This is the world image which America continually seeks and aims to acquire, yet in our modern age poverty remains a†¦show more content†¦These are characteristics which we have no control over yet drastically influence our life, such as race, ethnicity, biological sex, class, etc. Harro’s article is important, not only because it addresses how we learn through experience, but how we notice the effects ascribed factors have in one s life and our value in a world where all the rules and regulations involved with social and economic factors are already distinguished.Through our first form of socialization among our family, these rules and regulations become abundantly clear to us. Here we are first taught the norms and values of our society, including how one should interact, speak, live, what types of education are necessary or what economic status is acceptable. Yet, as we grow older we move to a new unit of socialization within institutions. At a school environment, we begin to learn how society sees us and others. Our peers assess us, make us question what we had previously learned and further educate or enhance our former beliefs. Through teachers and administration, we understand the rules, both written and unwritten, and the instances where these rules become unfair, favoring some people over another. Eventually proceeding youth, we emerge out of our shells to reality with a pre-manufactured set of ideals and norms of the world around us. Yet, one might still ask how does this affect poverty? Throughout history, impoverished people have struggled with others seeing andShow MoreRelatedThe Socialization Of Poverty : America1402 Words   |  6 PagesThe Socialization of Poverty Imagine America different from what we know. A different yet real America, which existed in the past, an American governed by hate and cruelty, fully equipped with racial segregation policies. Imagine parents, struggling for their children s education but being denied access because of the color of their skin. Imagine constant disapproval, crime, and suspicions towards someone because of their status, or something beyond their control. Today, we find America changedRead MoreThe Relationship between Poverty and Crime879 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction Poverty and the relationship it has to crime is a long standing sociological, humanists and historical phenomenon. From the plight of the third world to the violence soaked inner city streets of the 1980’s, the relationship of crime and poverty has been the source of a great deal of social commentary. In societies throughout the world and throughout history there has always been a traditional measure of deviance through relative income gaps. Both poverty and crime as well as theirRead MorePolitical Participation in Liberal Democracy1129 Words   |  5 Pagescivil society regulated by law but remaining separete from the state. Civil society provides opportunities for people to participate in collective activities that are neither pro-state or anti-state but simply non-state. In Latin America; we see social problems such as poverty, inequality, drugs, crime and limited education. This leads to less pol. participation. Cynicism : lost of hope in the system,discouraging political part. Politicans tortured because of being against drugs cartel. So, strong govermentRead MoreOrlando Padilla. Mrs. Miller. English 1A . Flawed Economic1562 Words   |  7 Pagesthe inequality and poverty present today. People dont even think about capitalism. Capitalism necessarily produces inegalitarian social structures. Karl Marx argued that the drive for profit leads the capitalist to constantly reduce the costs of production through a greater division of labor and the introduction and improvement of machinery. In Richard Peet’s Inequality and Poverty: A Marxist-Geographic Theory, he synthesizes Marxist theory and explains how inequality and poverty persist under theRead More Parenting Across Cultures Essay996 Words   |  4 Pagesstability and better education. Some immigrants face obstacles when they relocate to North America, such as language barriers, discipline issues, and little involvement in their child’s education. Many of the immigrants first language is not English, their language barrier may hinder them from communicating with employers and classroom educators (Arens, Clevenger Haynes, 2004). Some countries in North America prohibit corporal punishment which can be a challenge for some immigrant families. I mmigrantRead MoreAmerican Families, By Bill Moyers And The Stanleys1707 Words   |  7 Pagesthe Stanleys (a white family) would face struggles throughout the next twenty years which can be related to by nearly any middle class family you might approach; however, unlike most, these families’ struggles were documented. The United States of America is generally regarded as the country where dreams come true--where financial trouble is a mere horror story, and every family is happy and complete with two point five children and a white picket fence. This, however, is not so commonly the case.Read MoreThe Importance Of Socialization1351 Words   |  6 PagesSocialization is not something that just happens and then you are done, it is a process that continues throughout your life. It is how individuals gain their self-identity, as well as physical, mental and social skills that enables us to function in society (Kendall, 2017, p.87). Socialization aids us in being able to communicate with others in different environments and situations. Socialization allows a society to regenerate by passing on its culture through one generation to another. FamilyRead MoreSocial Label Of Being A Girl937 Words   |  4 Pagesthese things, it was almost like second nature to think and act the way that I did and sti ll do. My socialization skills, which to put simply are the accepted ways in society to behave or how I express myself, have all been shaped by the fact that I am a female. The socialization process is how we learn to act or to follow norms along with what to believe. There have been many agents of socialization in my life, which are the people and types of situations that teach us as human beings how to act andRead MoreWhy isn’t Life Expectancy in the United States Higher? Essay927 Words   |  4 Pagessurprisingly lower than expected in places such as the United States. America ranks twenty-fourth on the life expectancy list under Japan, Australia, France Spain and Italy. What causes this disparity in the ranking and statistics in an advanced industrialized society such as the United States? There are major statistical factors that influence the United States ranking in world life expectancy, involving education level, poverty, race and gender. The diverse groups of people living in the United StatesRead MoreThe Harvest / La Cosecha1490 Words   |  6 Pages The Harvest/La Cosecha Anticipatory socialization Anticipatory socialization is an agent of socialization process, facilitated by social interactions, in which non-group-members learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they aspire to join, so as to ease their entry into the group and help them interact competently once they have been accepted by it. Many of the farmers featured in the film have started crops as early as 5 or 8 years of age as soon as they came to live in the United

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Think, Feel, Act The Story Of Emotion - 1869 Words

Think, Feel, Act: The Story of Emotion Introduction Psychology, according to the Webster Dictionary, is â€Å"the science or study of the mind and behavior, the way a person or group thinks† (Psychology, 2012). Altogether then, it’s about people, how they think, feel, and act in various situations. It is no surprise then to find the field of psychology has grown as diverse as the questions it seeks to answer. Cognitive psychologists tackle the â€Å"think† question, dealing with cognitions, consciousness, rationality, and the internal experience of the mind. In stark contrast, Behavioral psychologists deal with the question of â€Å"act,† using strict measurements of behavior to study the nature of organisms. But what about the question of â€Å"feel?† Emotion plays pivotal roles in the human experience, to the point where its absence or mis-expression classifies as psychological disease, but where does it fall between the two perspectives? When experienced internally, it seems a mental state, a complex combination of physiological arousal and a subjective experience of the mind, falling under into the realms of the Cognitive perspective. Yet externally, and often experimentally, humans observe emotion based on the presence of specific behavioral cues. So what do both psychological perspectives have to contribute to the understanding of emotion? Where do they succeed, where do they fall short, and most importantly, how should this influence the study of emotion in the modern age?Show MoreRelatedThe Things They Carries by Tim O ´brien768 Words   |  3 Pagesthe â€Å"story-truth.† The novel itself, The Things They Carried, is comprised of many different stories based on the author Tim O’Brien’s service in the Vietnam war. Recalling from memories of his service, Tim O’Brien intricately weaves fact and fiction into his novel to force the reader into a turmoil of emotions by telling â€Å"true war stories,† that are not, in fact, war stories. Although many readers believe that â€Å"truth† is the act of retelling reality, â€Å"truth† is, in OBriens reality, the act of portrayingRead MoreAnalysis Of Lauren Becker s If I Would Leave Myself Behind811 Words   |  4 Pagesremission. Writing about human components and sensations must require some form of complicated, convoluted thought or idea—or does it? Straddling a line between pompous and simplistic can be a difficult feat when trying to compile a new and exciting story. Few accomplish their desired effect, be it to educate or move a reader. However, great author’s understand the significance of finding which words and meanings are significant, and which area not. Lauren Becker’s use of prose is impeccable in herRead MoreAnimal Suicide Essay989 Words   |  4 PagesPeople think they know all there is to know about human suicides, but in reality they don’t. Because if they did, they would know that they need to study animal suicides to help get a better understanding of human suicides. If people knew about animal suicides they could reconsider what they thought they knew about human suicide, and have a whole new light shined upon the subject. Everyone has these assumptions that people who commit suicide were just depressed, while that is true in most cases sometimesRead MoreEmotion and Story Essay1323 Words   |  6 PagesA Bag of Oranges NAME: NICK The story â€Å"A Bag of Oranges† by Spiro Athanas tells about a poor family lived in the rotting slum and the boy in this family became a mature person from a childish kid. Because the boy’s father needs to pay his responsibility to his family and the people who he loved, so his rude behavior and act makes his son hate him for a short time. After the boy notice his family’s financial situation, then he realize it’s not easy be an adult to making life run in the society,Read MoreAnalysis Of Cicero s Oration : An Artifact Where Persuasion Is Working At Its Best.966 Words   |  4 Pagesseen across many contemporary artifacts, but Blackfish is an artifact where persuasion is working at its best. Blackfish is a documentary that was released in 2013 by Gabriela Cowperthwaite. This documentary tells the story of killer whales in captivity, with a large portion of the story surrounding Tilikum. Tilikum is an orca who has severely hurt or killed several trainers while in captivity. The documentary’s website states that the film aims to, â€Å"challenge us to consider our relationship to natureRead MoreAnalysis Of John Knowless Ode To Jealousy1405 Words   |  6 Pagesof our lives everyday, spinning out of control when one is faced with the fact that they are not enough in a certain situation. Jealousy was, and still is, a core emotion is the human race. But why is jealousy such a prevalent emotion in specific situations? Jealousy goes hand in hand with one’s insecurities and shows itself when one feels that they are not enough or cannot fulfill a need of someone else. Even when we do not have something that someone else has, this power couple of jealousy and ourRead MoreRay Bradbury s Fahrenheit 4511408 Words   |  6 Pagesthe rules. The Giver on the other hand is a utopian society which ends up falling into a dystopian society. The society in The Giver can be called utopian which means that it has highly desirable or near perfect qualities. However, throughout the story one can see how it gradually turns more and more dystopian or undesirable. In this society there are many rules that one must follow. For example families must have exactly two children one male and one female, also people are not allowed to be outRead MoreInside the World of Boys: Behind the Mask of Masculinity by William Pollack751 Words   |  4 Pagesfourteen-year-old boy, he is doing badly in school and he might fail algebra, but when teacher or his parent ask about it, he said everything is just fine. He hide his true identity behind the mask, and let no one see his true self.† After read the story, I think the story is really useful source to write an essay about how boy become men and they are emotionless. Pollack is a well-respected author of a number of books, to guide boys successfully through the many challenges they face. Pollack is the DirectorRead MoreMonstrous Desires In Karen Russells Vampires In The Lemon Grove1014 Words   |  5 PagesMonstrous desires are not as exclusive as one might think, and in Karen Russell’s short story â€Å"Vampires in the Lemon Grove,† we come to recognize that, despite the fact that the two main characters, Clyde and Magreb, are actual vampires, their â€Å"monstrous† urges are all too familiar- perhaps even quintessentially human. In fact, with careful analysis, specifically through psychological criticism, we, as readers of â€Å"Vampires in the Lemon Grove,† can see that by understanding psychological urges ofRead MoreThe Theory Of Freedom Under An Authoritative Figure1690 Words   |  7 Pagesfollowing the command of officials. This is very similar to the story of Abraham and Isaac, as Abraham compromises his mor als for the sake of obeying. Although the teachers in Milgram’s experiment have the choice to discontinue the experiment, most of the teachers continue because they are reluctant to confront an authority, are fearful of what may happen if they disobey, feel pressure from the instructor, and experience intense emotions that cause them to behave irrationally. Therefore, humans struggle

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Petrol Retail Sector Free Essays

string(40) " only react to the market fluctuations\." Abstract The oil industry is a very important part or sector of the world economy and should be developed and taken care of in an appropriate manner. It is certainly one retail sector that has had considerable changes and development in its core business. The industry has continually gained popularity and attracted a lot of interest, which has consequently contributed greatly to the development of economies of the countries that deal in it. We will write a custom essay sample on Petrol Retail Sector or any similar topic only for you Order Now This paper gives the macro-environmental analysis and the market research of the oil industry by utilizing the PESTEL model. However, it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that it creates a favorable environment for the smooth operation of the industry. Introduction The petrol retail sector is certainly one retail sector that has had considerable changes and development in its core business. In recent years, the petroleum industry has attracted a lot of interest. This is an industry that contributes greatly to the development of economies of the countries that deal in it (Fleig, 2005, p89). In the past decade, increases in the price of the commodity brought about a big challenge for the retailers of service stations to run lucrative, sustainable and practical businesses, as the increase in the prices resulted to negative impacts on the volume of sales. The industry’s new entrants and new competition presented by some other retail businesses made changes in the industry necessary. The industry of petroleum has seen the introduction of new businesses at the service stations for the purposes of generating income for the business so as to ensure that there is viability and productivity (Sobel 2008, p42). The propagation of service stations, c ontrolled margins of retailer on volume performance and petrol has all brought concern regarding the individual service station’s survival. The economical effects of the fluctuations in the price crude oil have ultimately affected the retailers as well as motorists. The United Kingdom’s price of petrol depends exclusively on the conditions of the international market. This industry is faced with various challenges and changes. The future uncertainty and unpredictability of the exhaustible resources’ supply, such as crude oil influences the price of the crude oil that the global market experiences (Bushell and Stan 2009, p71). Therefore, the demand for energy puts more pressure on the price as the global economy grows faster. The uncertainty about whether the deregulation of the industry of liquid fuel brings a new dimension to the future of the industry. Some of the giant retailers in the industry include Total, the Royal Dutch Shell, ConocoPhilips and Chevron. This paper is going to look at the risk factors associated with the supply of crude oil derivatives like petrol to the West Dulwich shell filling st ation in London. PESTEL Analysis PESTEL analysis, which stands for Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal, is a description of a framework of the macro-environmental factors that are used in the component of environmental scanning of the strategic management. It is part of the analysis of the external environment when carrying out a market research or doing a strategic analysis, and offers an insight into the various macro-environmental factors that should be taken into account by the organization or company (Fleig 2005, p44) It is a fundamental strategic tool that helps in the understanding of the decline or growth of the market, the position of business and operations direction. The increasing significance of ecological or environmental factors in the initial or early years of the twenty first century have introduced green businesses and facilitated extensive use of an up-to-date version of the framework of the model. The following is the PESTEL analysis of the supply of crude oil de rivatives like petrol to the West Dulwich shell filling station in London: Political effects Crude is among the most needed commodities allover the world. Any amount of change in the price of crude oil can lead to both direct and indirect impact on its derivatives, and consequently on the countries’ economy. The OPEC countries are the principal producers of the crude oil that is used worldwide. Therefore, it means that any policy that is made by the organization or some countries within the organization regarding the prices of crude oil will greatly affect the supply of petrol and diesel to the service station (Sobel, 2008, p.34). Any decision taken by the countries within the organization, for instance raising or reducing the prices of crude oil may definitely affect the level of price of the petrol and diesel in the global community markets. Political stability within the countries that produce crude oil is also essential to its availability and also influences its prices to a great deal. For instance, a lot of the crude oil is produced by the countries in the Middle East, and if there is conflict in the region, the drilling of oil will be affected. Lack of political stability such as war or terrorism in the Greenwich region, and even pirates might make it difficult for the products to reach the petrol station due to fear by the suppliers, or even damage to the tankers. Economic effects Demand and supply is balanced by the global oil inventories. If the production of crude oil exceeds its demand, the surplus product can be kept. When the consumption is higher than the demand for the product, then inventories can be tapped so as to be in a position of meeting the rise in demand, and the connection between the prices of oil and the inventories of oil enables correction in both directions (Risk Analysis in Oil Refining Sector, 2008). The supply of crude oil by countries that are not members of OPEC stands at sixty percent of the total oil produced in the world. However, even though their supply is fifty percent more that that of the OPEC community, they do not have adequate reserves to enable them control the prices in the market and can only react to the market fluctuations. You read "Petrol Retail Sector" in category "Essay examples" On the other hand, the OPEC community has the ability of directly influencing the price of crude oil in the market. This is particularl y when the supply of the oil that is produced by the countries that are not members of the community goes down. When the demand for petrol and diesel is high in the Greenwhich region, there will be scramble for available oil thus reducing the supply. This problem can be solved by building adequate reserves for storing the product so that the supply to clients can remain steady when the supply from the source reduces. The cost of production is also another important factor in determining the price of oil within the global market. If the cost of extracting oil and its eventual refining is too high, it means that the prices will also go high, but if it does not cost much to produce it, the prices will go down significantly. It also requires a lot of finances and resources to discover more oil locations and to develop as well as maintain them. If the funds and resources are available, there would be more discoveries of oil production sites and the quantity produces and supplied to the final consumer will be large (Simmons, 2005, p.23). If there are no funds together with the resources to enable expansion of the production, the supply will go down and the prices will rise, thus making it difficult for the service station to acquire it. The brokers of oil servers the link between sellers and buyers of the product, and do contract trading for future oil delivery referred to as ‘futures.’ Consumers buy futures for hedging against the increases in the prices of oil that could considerably impact their profitability. Producers of oil sell the contracts of oil futures so as to lock in a price for a particular period and the brokers buy oil futures to give promise of future delivery of the product as a given price. This implies that the oil brokers play a significant role in determining the price of oil in the global market because they are the link between the buyers and the sellers (Anderson and Marhadour, 2007, p.102). Social effects Human populations in the region can also affect the supply because the demand will be high. The population in the Greenwich region is too high and the demand for petrol and diesel may raise, hence the supply decreasing (Fleig, 2005, p.65). Frequent strikes by the tanker drives may also affect the supply because there will be no one to bring the products to the service station. The need to observe laws such us the employment of high qualified, and not to employ underage drivers, but who may be qualified may lead to lack of enough drivers to do the work of transportation. The law also sets a minimum wage for the workers and this would affect the supply of petrol and diesel because there might not be enough funds to employ many drivers to transport the products. Technological effects The world of today depends almost exclusively on technology, and exercises such as the drilling of oil requires high levels of it. The equipment used for the process is very sophisticated as they are required to dig deep into the ground and fetch the oil. The oil companies also need to ensure that proper equipment are put in place to avoid things such a soil spillage which can be hazardous to the environment and also cause losses (Anderson and Marhadour, 2007, p.108). This equipment are very expensive and the oil companies are forced to use a lot of money to ensure that all the technological requirements are employed so that production can be enhances and risks reduced as much as possible. When all these production costs are factored in the whole process of production, the final price in the market becomes high. The need to have the latest technology at the service stations such as epos automation systems raises the cost of operation. Environmental effects In the few past years, the international community has experiences a number of events that have consequently had great influence on the prices of crude oil. Such events include the Hurricane Katrina and some other kinds of tropical cyclone that have struck a significant part of the globe. This resulted in the prices of oil going up by a very huge percentage, which makes it difficult to acquire it in large quantities. Excessive drilling of oil by some oil companies has led to the exhaustion of the sources as well as environmental degradation. This has led to some governments such as that of the United States of America and United Kingdom to prohibiting the exploration in some regions (Black, 2012, p.82). The major aim of these policies is to preserve the resources so as to ensure that there is continuity or sustainability. When these policies are put in place, the quantity of oil produced reduces, thus demand exceeding supply, which consequently forces the prices to go up. Nonetheless, these policies that are introduced by the governments, which aims at limiting the extraction of oil exerts a lot of pressure on the companies that produce oil to not only finding ways of increasing efficiency, but also finding alternative sources of fuel. These initiatives are very slow and difficult because of the considerable financing required energy and time that go into things like researching and production of such products. More so, when an alternative sources of energy is introduced into the market, there is a substantial time lag in which the designing and production of new products that are compatible is done (Beamish, 2006, p.88). It then can take even more time for the clients to know about the existence or availability of the products and be willing to make investments in them. Extreme weather conditions also affect the production of the crude oil. For instance, when there is a lot of rain, it becomes very difficult to access the sites of oil drilling. The machines that are used in the process of drilling oil might also be damaged by the unfavorable weather or their operation may just be affected. This makes it difficult for the crude oil to be produced in large quantities, thus forcing the prices to rise (Bushell, and Stan, 2009). Legal effects Different countries have different requirements for one to be allowed to start and operate a business. The same case applies to the ownership of a service station as well as the oil companies. If the requirements by the government are too strict, there will be a few suppliers in the market, and in turn the price of fuel will rise (Assilzadeh, and Yang, 2010, p.240). Conclusion The oil industry is a very important part or sector of the world economy that should be developed and taken care of in an appropriate manner. Problems such as strikes should be avoided by timely payment so that supply can remain steady. The company should invest in the latest technology that is related to the business to ensure fast delivery of petrol and diesel. Proper plans should also be put in place to ensure that the costs of production and operation of oil companies are reduces and the legal requirements made as flexible as possible. To avoid shortages in supply due to political factors, the company should not depend on a single source of supply, specifically from the OPEC countries. This problem can also help by ensuring that the Greenwich region is safe for any kind of business and the petrol station should also consider using oil pipelines as opposed to tankers. References (2008, 12). Risk Analysis in Oil Refining Sector. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 12, 2008, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Risk-Analysis-In-Oil-Refining-Sector-185467.html Akkartal, A., and F. Sunar, 2008, ‘The usage of radar images in oil spill detection. The International Archives of the Photgrammetry.’ Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences 37, no. Part B8: 271-76. Anderson, A, and Marhadour A, 2007, ‘Slick PRThe media politics of the Prestige oil spill.’ Science Communication 29, no. 1: 96-115. Assilzadeh, H, and Yang G, 2010, ‘Designation of an interactive oil spill management system.’ Disaster Prevention and Management 19, no. 2: 233-42. Beamish, T D, 2006, Silent Spill: The Organization of an Industrial Crisis. London: MIT Press. Black, B C, 2012, Crude Reality: Petroleum in World History. New York: Rowman Littlefield. Bushell, S, and Stan J, 2009, The Spill: Personal Stories from the Exxon Valdez Disaster. AK: Epicenter Press. Fleig, F, 2005, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (Harvard Historical Studies). Harvard University Press. Simmons, S, 2005, Twilight in the Desert The Coming Saudi Oil Shock and the World Economy, John Wiley Sons. Sobel R, 2008, The Money Manias: The Eras of Great Speculation in America, Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press (Rowman Littlefield). Yeomans, M, 2006, Oil: Anatomy of an Industry, New Press. How to cite Petrol Retail Sector, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

1. THE EMBODIMENT OF TAO Essay Example For Students

1. THE EMBODIMENT OF TAO Essay Even the finest teaching is not the Tao itself. Even the finest name is insufficient to define it. Without words, the Tao can be experienced, and without a name, it can be known. To conduct ones life according to the Tao, is to conduct ones life without regrets; to realize that potential within oneself which is of benefit to all. Though words or names are not required to live ones life this way, to describe it, words and names are used, that we might better clarify the way of which we speak, without confusing it with other ways in which an individual might choose to live. Through knowledge, intellectual thought and words, the manifestations of the Tao are known, but without such intellectual intent we might experience the Tao itself. Both knowledge and experience are real, but reality has many forms, which seem to cause complexity. By using the means appropriate, we extend ourselves beyond the barriers of such complexity, and so experience the Tao. Up to Ind ex 2. LETTING GO OF COMPARISONS We cannot know the Tao itself, nor see its qualities direct, but only see by differentiation, that which it manifests. Thus, that which is seen as beautiful is beautiful compared with that which is seen as lacking beauty; an action considered skilled is so considered in comparison with another, which seems unskilled. That which a person knows he has is known to him by that which he does not have, and that which he considers difficult seems so because of that which he can do with ease. One thing seems long by comparison with that which is, comparatively, short. One thing is high because another thing is low; only when sound ceases is quietness known, and that which leads is seen to lead only by being followed. In comparison, the sage, in harmony with the Tao, needs no comparisons, and when he makes them, knows that comparisons are judgements, and just as relative to he who makes them, and to the situation, as they are to th at on which the judgement has been made. Through his experience, the sage becomes aware that all things change, and that he who seems to lead, might also, in another situation, follow. So he does nothing; he neither leads nor follows. That which he does is neither big nor small; without intent, it is neither difficult, nor done with ease. His task completed, he then lets go of it; seeking no credit, he cannot be discredited. Thus, his teaching lasts for ever, and he is held in high esteem. Up to Index 3. WITHOUT SEEKING ACCLAIM By retaining his humility, the talented person who is also wise, reduces rivalry. The person who possesses many things, but does not boast of his possessions, reduces temptation, and reduces stealing. Those who are jealous of the skills or things possessed by others, most easily themselves become possessed by envy. Satisfied with his possessions, the sage eliminates the need to steal; at one with the Tao, he remains free of envy, and has no need of titles. By being supple, he retains his energy. He minimizes his desires, and does not train himself in guile, nor subtle words of praise. By not contriving, he retains the harmony of his inner world, and so remains at peace within himself. It is for reasons such as these, that an administration which is concerned with the welfare of those it serves, does not encourage status and titles to be sought, nor encourage rivalry. Ensuring a sufficiency for all, helps in reducing discontent. Administrators who are wise do not seek honours for themselves, nor act with guile towards the ones they serve. Up to Index 4. THE UNFATHOMABLE TAO It is the nature of the Tao, that even though used continuously, it is replenished naturally, never being emptied, and never being over-filled, as is a goblet which spills its contents upon the ground. The Tao therefore cannot be said to waste its charge, but constantly remains a source of nourishment for those who are not so full of self as to be unable to partake of it. When tempered beyond its natural state, the finest blade will lose its edge. Even the hardest tempered sword, against water, is of no avail, and will shatter if struck against a rock. When untangled by a cutting edge, the cord in little pieces lies, and is of little use. Just as the finest swordsmith tempers the finest blade with his experience, so the sage, with wisdom, tempers intellect. With patience, tangled cord may be undone, and problems which seem insoluble, resolved. With wise administrators, all can exist in unity, each with the other, because no man need feel that he exists, only as the shadow of his brilliant brother. Through conduct not contrived for gain, awareness of the Tao may be maintained. This is how its mysteries may be found. Up to Index 5. WITHOUT INTENTION Nature acts without intent, so cannot be described as acting with benevolence, nor malevolence to any thing. In this respect, the Tao is just the same, though in reality it should be said that nature follows the rule of Tao. Therefore, even when he seems to act in manner kind or benevolent, the sage is not acting with such intent, for in conscious matters such as these, he is amoral and indifferent. The sage retains tranquility, and is not by speech or thought disturbed, and even less by action which is contrived. His actions are spontaneous, as are his deeds towards his fellow men. By this means he is empty of desire, and his energy is not drained from him. Up to Index 6. COMPLETION Like the sheltered, fertile valley, the meditative mind is still, yet retains its energy. Since both energy and stillness, of themselves, do not have form, it is not through the senses that they may be found, nor understood by intellect alone, although, in nature, both abound. In the meditative state, the mind ceases to differentiate between existences, and that which may or may n ot be. It leaves them well alone, for they exist, not differentiated, but as one, within the meditative mind. Up to Index 7. SHEATHING THE LIGHT When living by the Tao, awareness of self is not required, for in this way of life, the self exists, and is also non-existent, being conceived of, not as an existentiality, nor as non-existent. The sage does not contrive to find his self, for he knows that all which may be found of it, is that which it manifests to sense and thought, which side by side with self itself, is nought. It is by sheathing intellects bright light that the sage remains at one with his own self, ceasing to be aware of it, by placing it behind. Detached, he is unified with his external world, by being selfless he is fulfilled; thus his selfhood is assured. Up to Index 8. THE WAY OF WATER Great good is said to be like water, sustaining life with no conscious striving, flowing naturally, providing nourishment, found even in places which des iring man rejects. In this way it is like the Tao itself. Like water, the sage abides in a humble place; in meditation, without desire; in thoughtfulness, he is profound, and in his dealings, kind. In speech, sincerity guides the man of Tao, and as a leader, he is just. In management, competence is his aim, and he ensures the pacing is correct. Because he does not act for his own ends, nor cause unnecessary conflict, he is held to be correct in his actions towards his fellow man. Up to Index 9. WITHOUT EXTREMES The cup is easier to hold when not filled to overflowing. The blade is more effective if not tempered beyond its mettle. Gold and jade are easier to protect if possessed in moderation. He who seeks titles, invites his own downfall. The sage works quietly, seeking neither praise nor fame; completing what he does with natural ease, and then retiring. This is the way and nature of Tao. Up to Index 10. CLEANING THE DARK MIRROR Maintaining unity is virtuous, for the inner world of thought is one with the external world of action and of things. The sage avoids their separation, by breathing as the sleeping babe, and thus maintaining harmony. He cleans the dark mirror of his mind, so that it reflects without intent. He conducts himself without contriving, loving the people, and not interfering. He cultivates without possessing, thus providing nourishment, he remains receptive to changing needs, and creates without desire. By leading from behind, attending to that which must be done, he is said to have attained the mystic state. Up to Index 11. THE UTILITY OF NON-EXISTENCE Though thirty spokes may form the wheel, it is the hole within the hub which gives the wheel utility. It is not the clay the potter throws, which gives the pot its usefulness, but the space within the shape, from which the pot is made. Without a door, the room cannot be entered, and without windows it is dark. Such is the utility of non-existence. Up to Index 12. THE REPRESSION OF DESIRES Through sight, the colours may be seen, but too much colour blinds us. Apprehending the tones of sound, too much sound might make us deaf, and too much flavour deadens taste. When hunting for sport, and chasing for pleasure, the mind easily becomes perplexed. He who collects treasures for himself more easily becomes anxious. The wise person fulfills his needs, rather than sensory temptations. Up to Index 13. UNMOVED AND UNMOVING The ordinary man seeks honour, not dishonour, cherishing success and abominating failure, loving life, whilst fearing death. The sage does not recognise these things, so lives his life quite simply. The ordinary man seeks to make himself the centre of his universe; the universe of the sage is at his centre. He loves the world, and thus remains unmoved by things with which others are concerned. He acts with humility, is neither moved nor moving, and can therefore be truste d in caring for all things. Up to Index 14. EXPERIENCING THE MYSTERY The Tao is abstract, and therefore has no form, it is neither bright in rising, nor dark in sinking, cannot be grasped, and makes no sound. Without form or image, without existence, the form of the formless, is beyond defining, cannot be described, and is beyond our understanding. It cannot be called by any name. Standing before it, it has no beginning; even when followed, it has no end. In the now, it exists; to the present apply it, follow it well, and reach its beginning. Up to Index 15. THE MANIFESTATION OF THE TAO IN MAN The sage of old was profound and wise; like a man at a ford, he took great care, alert, perceptive and aware. Desiring nothing for himself, and having no desire for change for its own sake, his actions were difficult to understand. Being watchful, he had no fear of danger; being responsive, he had no need of fear. He was courteous like a visiting guest, and as yiel ding as the springtime ice. Having no desires, he was untouched by craving. Receptive and mysterious, his knowledge was unfathomable, causing others to think him hesitant. Pure in heart, like uncut jade, he cleared the muddy water by leaving it alone. By remaining calm and active, the need for renewing is reduced. Up to Index 16. RETURNING TO THE ROOT It is only by means of being that non-being may be found. When society changes from its natural state of flux, to that which seems like chaos, the inner world of the superior man remains uncluttered and at peace. By remaining still, his self detatched, he aids society in its return to the way of nature and of peace. The value of his insight may be clearly seen when chaos ceases. Being one with the Tao is to be at peace, and to be in conflict with it, leads to chaos and dysfunction. When the consistency of the Tao is known, the mind is receptive to its states of change. It is by being at one with the Tao, t hat the sage holds no prejudice against his fellow man. If accepted as a leader of men, he is held in high esteem. Throughout his life, both being and non-being, the Tao protects him. Up to Index 17. LEADERSHIP BY EXCEPTION Man cannot comprehend the infinite; only knowing that the best exists, the second best is seen and praised, and the next, despised and feared. The sage does not expect that others use his criteria as their own. The existence of the leader who is wise is barely known to those he leads. He acts without unnecessary speech, so that the people say, It happened of its own accord. Up to Index 18. THE DECAY OF ETHICS When the way of the Tao is forgotten, kindness and ethics need to be taught; men learn to pretend to be wise and good. All too often in the lives of men, filial piety and devotion arise only after conflict and strife, just as loyal ministers all too often appear, when the people are suppressed. Up to Index 19. RETURNING TO NATU RALNESS It is better merely to live ones life, realizing ones potential, rather than wishing for sanctification. He who lives in filial piety and love has no need of ethical teaching. When cunning and profit are renounced, stealing and fraud will disappear. But ethics and kindness, and even wisdom, are insufficient in themselves. Better by far to see the simplicity of raw silks beauty and the uncarved block; to be one with onself, and with ones brother. It is better by far to be one with the Tao, developing selflessness, tempering desire, removing the wish, but being compassionate. Up to Index 20. BEING DIFFERENT FROM ORDINARY MEN The sage is often envied because others do not know that although he is nourished by the Tao, like them, he too is mortal. He who seeks wisdom is well advised to give up academic ways, and put an end to striving. Then he will learn that yes and no are distinguished only by distinction. It is to the advantage of the sage th at he does not fear what others fear, but it is to the advantage of others that they can enjoy the feast, or go walking, free of hindrance, through the terraced park in spring. The sage drifts like a cloud, having no specific place. Like a newborn babe before it smiles, he does not seek to communicate. In the eyes of those who have more than they need, the sage has nothing, and is a fool, prizing only that which of the Tao is born. The sage may seem to be perplexed, being neither bright nor clear, and to himself, sometimes he seems both dull and weak, confused and shy. Like the ocean at night, he is serene and quiet, but as penetrating as the winter wind. Up to Index 21. FINDING THE ESSENCE OF TAO The greatest virtue is to follow the Tao; how it achieves ! without contriving. The essence of Tao is dark and mysterious, having, itself, no image or form. Yet through its non-being, are found image and form. The essence of Tao is deep and unfathomable, yet it may be known by not trying to know. Up to Index 22. YIELDING TO MAINTAIN INTEGRITY Yield, and maintain integrity. To bend is to be upright; to be empty is to be full. Those who have little have much to gain, but those who have much may be confused by possessions. The wise man embraces the all encompassing; he is unaware of himself, and so has brilliance; not defending himself, he gains distinction; not seeking fame, he receives recognition; not making false claims, he does not falter; and not being quarrelsome, is in conflict with no one. This is why it was said by the sages of old, Yield, and maintain integrity; be whole, and all things come to you. Up to Index 23. ACCEPTING THE IRREVOCABLE Natures way is to say but little; high winds are made still with the turn of the tide, and rarely last all morning, nor heavy rain, all day. Therefore, when talking, remember also to be silent and still. He who follows the natural way is always one with the Tao. H e who is virtuous may experience virtue, whilst he who loses the natural way is easily lost himself. He who is at one with the Tao is at one with nature, and virtue always exists for he who has virtue. To accept the irrevocable is to let go of desire. He who does not have trust in others should not himself be trusted. 24. EXCESS He who stretches beyond his natural reach, does not stand firmly upon the ground; just as he who travels at a speed beyond his means, cannot maintain his pace. He who boasts is not enlightened, and he who is self-righteous does not gain respect from those who are meritous; thus, he gains nothing, and will fall into disrepute. Since striving, boasting and self-righteousness, are all unnecessary traits, the sage considers them excesses, and has no need of them. Up to Index 25. THE CREATIVE PRINCIPLE OF TAO The creative principle unifies the inner and external worlds. It does not depend on time or space, is ever still and yet in motion; thereby it creates all things, and is therefore called the creative and the absolute; its ebb and its flow extend to infinity. We describe the Tao as being great; we describe the universe as great; nature too, we describe as great, and man himself is great. Mans laws should follow natural laws, just as nature gives rise to physical laws, whilst following from universal law, which follows the Tao. Up to Index 26. CENTRING The natural way is the way of the sage, serving as his dwelling, providing his centre deep within, whether in his home or journeying. Even when he travels far, he is not separate from his own true nature. Maintaining awareness of natural beauty, he still does not forget his purpose. Although he may dwell in a grand estate, simplicity remains his guide, for he is full aware, that losing it, his roots as well would disappear. So he is not restless, lest he loses the natural way. Similarly, the peoples leader is not flippant i n his role, nor restless, for these could cause the loss of the roots of leadership. Up to Index 27. FOLLOWING THE TAO The sage follows the natural way, doing what is required of him. Like an experienced tracker, he leaves no tracks; like a good speaker, his speech is fluent; He makes no error, so needs no tally; like a good door, which needs no lock, he is open when it is required of him, and closed at other times; like a good binding, he is secure, without the need of borders. Knowing that virtue may grow from example, this is the way in which the sage teaches, abandoning no one who stops to listen. Thus, from experience of the sage, all might learn, and so might gain. There is mutual respect twixt teacher and pupil, for, without respect, there would be confusion. Up to Index 28. RETAINING INTEGRITY Whilst developing creativity, also cultivate receptivity. Retain the mind like that of a child, which flows like running water. When considering any thing, do not lose its opposite. When thinking of the finite, do not forget infinity; Act with honour, but retain humility. By acting according to the way of the Tao, set others an example. By retaining the integrity of the inner and external worlds, true selfhood is maintained, and the inner world made fertile. Up to Index 29. TAKING NO ACTION The external world is fragile, and he who meddles with its natural way, risks causing damage to himself. He who tries to grasp it, thereby loses it. It is natural for things to change, sometimes being ahead, sometimes behind. There are times when even breathing may be difficult, whereas its natural state is easy. Sometimes one is strong, and sometimes weak, sometimes healthy, and sometimes sick, sometimes is first, and at other times behind. The sage does not try to change the world by force, for he knows that force results in force. He avoids extremes and excesses, and does not become complacent. Up to Index 30. A CAVEAT AGAINST VIOLENCE When leading by the way of the Tao, abominate the use of force, for it causes resistance, and loss of strength, showing the Tao has not been followed well. Achieve results but not through violence, for it is against the natural way, and damages both others and ones own true self. The harvest is destroyed in the wake of a great war, and weeds grow in the fields in the wake of the army. The wise leader achieves results, but does not glory in them; is not proud of his victories, and does not boast of them. He knows that boasting is not the natural way, and that he who goes against that way, will fail in his endeavours. Up to Index 31. MAINTAINING PEACE Weapons of war are instruments of fear, and are abhorred by those who follow the Tao. The leader who follows the natural way does not abide them. The warrior king leans to his right, from whence there comes his generals advice, but the peaceful king looks to his left, where sits his cou nsellor of peace. When he looks to his left, it is a time of peace, and when to the right, a time for sorrow. Weapons of war are instruments of fear, and are not favoured by the wise, who use them only when there is no choice, for peace and stillness are dear to their hearts, and victory causes them no rejoicing. To rejoice in victory is to delight in killing; to delight in killing is to have no self-being. The conduct of war is that of a funeral; when people are killed, it is a time of mourning. This is why even victorious battle should be observed without rejoicing. Up to Index 32. IF THE TAO WERE OBSERVED The Tao is eternal, but does not have fame; like the uncarved block, its worth seems small, though its value to man is beyond all measure. Were it definable, it could then be used to obviate conflict, and the need to teach the way of the Tao; all men would abide in the peace of the Tao; sweet dew would descend to nourish the earth. When the Tao is divided , there is a need for names, for, like the block which is carved, its parts then are seen. By stopping in time from torment and conflict, strife is defeated, and danger averted. The people then seek the wisdom of Tao, just as all Against Cloning Essay

Sunday, March 29, 2020

A Christmas Carol Text Response free essay sample

Charles Dickens presents a warning to society through his novella ‘A Christmas Carol’. Discuss. Fictional stories, although based upon make-believe tales, can often expose the truth behind an author’s personal views and ideals, as well as act as powerful tools to present social messages and warnings to readers across many generations. ‘A Christmas Carol’, written by Charles Dickens, is a novella in which social inequality is highlighted through the journey of a notorious miser during the Victorian era in Britain. Throughout this morality tale, Dickens presents a warning to society through his ‘social commentary’ which centres on how society has become too self-absorbed and greedy in their ways. Dickens warns his readers that money and materialistic possessions should not take precedence over empathy and compassion towards others. This is portrayed through the journey and transformation of the novella’s protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge. Ebenezer Scrooge is a misanthropic moneylender who is introduced as an extremely self-absorbed man with a callous attitude towards poverty. We will write a custom essay sample on A Christmas Carol Text Response or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Relatively well-off, Scrooge demonstrates his refusal to assist those nine need and his egotistical personality seems to be the focal point throughout the first stave. This is portrayed through Scrooge’s reaction towards the ‘portly gentlemen’ asking for a donation to fund the poor. â€Å"It’s not my business†¦It’s enough for a man to understand his own business and not to interfere with other people’s. Mine occupies me constantly. † This is an example of how Dickens emphasizes Scrooges lack of empathy towards others in an effort to warn readers of how not to live and focus oneself on personal gain. On a broader symbolic scale, Scrooge represents the many wealthy businessmen of industrial Britain who have cut themselves off from humanity to become fixated with personal gain and wealth. By doing this, Dickens is focusing in on the many wealthy businessmen of his time and warning them to change their greedy and self-absorbed ways. In an effort to present a warning to his audience, Charles Dickens creates his characters to represent different themes throughout the book. A great example of this are the characters of Want and Ignorance, who as their names suggest, represent the want of personal gain and wealth and the ignorance of the rich towards the poor. Want and Ignorance, two emaciated children of man, are presented to Scrooge through the ghost of Christmas Present. These two terrifying figures epresent humanity’s fate if people fail to respond to the plight of the poor. Almost wild in demeanour, the children have been neglected to the point they have become feral. â€Å"No change, no degradation, no perversion of humanity, in any grade, through all the mysteries of wonderful creation, has monsters half so horrible and dread. † The children have been reduced to the status of monsters and following so rapidly from the jovial scenes of celebration, they shock the reader and terrify Scrooge. The children are in direct contrast to Tiny Tim and the other Cratchits; where they are joyful and thankful for what little they have, the characters of Want and Ignorance are feral and represent the good of the rich and misfortune of the poor. Dickens utilises these two characters to shock and warn the readers of humanity’s fate if society’s social division and stark inequality was to continue. Although Dickens sets out to warn his readers on what personal characteristics not to possess, he also makes an effort to educate his readers on how to be model citizens. This is demonstrated through the transformation of Scrooge’s character from the beginning to the end of the novella. Throughout the last stave, Scrooge is portrayed as a ‘changed man’, shown through his many acts of kindness and love as well as his changed attitude towards poverty and prosperity. â€Å"He became as good a friend, as good a master, and as good a man, as the good old city knew, or any other good old city, town or borough, in the good old world. † This statement encapsulates the stark contrast between Scrooge’s character in the first stave when compared to the last. It can even be said that the last stave is written in a symmetrical manner to that of the first. This is made obvious through the stark opposites that can be seen in Scrooge’s personality in the first stave when compared to the last; where he used to be greedy and self-absorbed, he became selfless and compassionate. Dickens uses this example of symmetry to make Scrooge’s transformation even more discernible to readers as to allow them to note just how a model citizen should act towards others. Dickens’ ‘A Christmas Carol’ presents a warning to society through the representation of characters and the journey and transformation of the notorious miser, Ebenezer Scrooge. Dickens warns society of the grim future that awaits humanity if people fail to respond to the plight of the poor. Finally, if Dickens intentions weren’t made clear enough through these examples, his preface says it all. â€Å"I have endeavoured in this ghostly little book, to raise the ghost of an idea†¦May it haunt their houses pleasantly, and no one wish to lay it. †

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Pestle Analysis And 5 Forces Analysis Essays

Pestle Analysis And 5 Forces Analysis Essays Pestle Analysis And 5 Forces Analysis Essay Pestle Analysis And 5 Forces Analysis Essay Although it has been nearly 4 years since the destruction of the twin towers in the US, terrorism remains a very real threat in much of the world, and a powerful political and economic influence on business. The political unrest caused by insurgencies is very detrimental to the economic situations of countries, affecting economic factors like interest rates, consumer spending, and foreign investment. Terrorism is especially relevant to the confectionery industry terrorist attacks have taken the form of food poisoning in the past1. Companies in the confectionery industry will have to select the countries that they operate in wisely, and take the necessary security measures to ensure that their products are not tampered with. The ALF in 1984 claimed to have poisoned MARS Bars in the UK. Every MARS candy bar in the UK was removed from the shelves at a cost of over 3 million pounds. Again, in 1988, the ALF terrorists poisoned a lot of confectionary sugar at a Swiss chocolate factory with rat poison and sent the results to the media. As a result the company had to halt production and clean the factory at a cost of over 30 million US Dollars. An economic trend with profound effects on operations of Western European confectionery companies has to do with the cost of labour. Growing wages are currently pushing production of confectionery products out to Central and Eastern Europe. In particular, the Czech Republic is emerging as new centre for European confectionery production2. Companies that do not quickly adapt to this trend will find themselves at a cost disadvantage, which will hinder their competitiveness in the industry. Changes in world demographics also have weighty sociocultural implications for the confectionery industry. Western European populations are growing very slowly and in some instances actually declining (Eastern European countries have negative growth rates) while Africa, parts of Asia and South America have rates of population growth near 3 percent per year. Europe is also said to have an ageing population, whereas Africa, South America, and most of Asia have populations that consist of 30-40% who are under the age of 15 (See Appendix A). There is a grave threat for confectionery companies operating in European countries due to the declining and aging population. An extremely substantial portion of the confectionery market is made up of children; even adult purchases are often motivated by children. These threats have to be addressed in order to maximize profits in the industry. The growing populations in Asia and South America, on the other hand, are a source of much opportunity. Tho ugh they are outside of the Western European market, it would be wise for the large multinationals to start giving them more attention. Perhaps marketing strategies in Europe may need to be adjusted while using the original strategies to penetrate Asia and South America further. A relevant sociocultural trend occurring in developed countries today is increased health consciousness; there is growing public concern over the ingredients in products, appropriate labelling, and other related health issues. Consequently, ethical marketing is becoming more prevalent, both in Europe and in the United States3. Much of the focus has been on childrens diets being loaded with sugar, salt and fat, as well as the related issue of childhood obesity. In the UK, Martin Paterson, Deputy Director General of the Food and Drink Federation made a statement to the press in February 2003 in response to heightened media coverage of the ethics of targeting children with food and drinks, saying advertisements should not: Encourage children to eat or drink frequently throughout the day; condone excessive consumption; suggest confectionary or snacks should replace balanced meals; take advantage of childrens natural sense of loyalty4. This trend has legal implications as well. The food industry is finding itself increasingly under pressure from legislators to accurately inform customers of the nutritional value of their products5. Confectionery companies will have to adapt to the laws that are passed due to these changes in consumer lifestyles and perceptions, or face legal consequences. Growing health consciousness has sparked the pursuit of healthier chocolate. For example, recent research has shown that natural cocoa contains the highest capacity of the antioxidant procyanidin6 has allowed for technological developments such as the process of retaining polyphenols in cocoa beans throughout chocolate processing7. Another technological development resulting from growing concern for the environment is the use of biodegradable wrappers. Australias confectionary manufacturer Cadbury Schweppes was the first manufacturer in the world to implement a new form of environmentally friendly packaging in 2003. They used the biodegradable polymeric material for packaging Cadbury Milk Tray Chocolates8. These new developments are vital opportunities for the industry in its current situation, and if exploited, may be the means by which companies can quell some of the threats brought about by the sociocultural trend of increasing health consciousness. Threat of Entry Entering the industry to compete with the leading players is extremely difficult. Scale economies in production, research, and marketing are very high. In the two years from December 2002, Mintel (2004) recorded nearly 300 new product launches into the chocolate confectionery market and an average of à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½8.67 million spent by the top three advertisers in the industry. Product differentiation is also a powerful entry barrier. Branding plays a key role, particularly in the impulse market. And according to Porter (1985, p. 135), overcoming customer loyalty towards more venerable players is likely to cost new entrants substantial amounts. Capital requirements are also very high. One of the market leaders, Cadbury Schweppes, had tangible fixed assets amounting to à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½1.63 billion and total assets amounting to à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½9.7 billion in 20049. Overall, the huge investment needed to create and maintain a market-leading brand means that it is difficult for smaller, or new, pl ayers to enter the market (Mintel, 2004). Bargaining Power of Suppliers The main inputs for the manufacture of confectionery include dairy products, sugars, cocoa and other ingredients. Since these products are commodities, which can hardly be differentiated and do not imply high switching costs for buyers, their suppliers have little bargaining power over chocolate manufacturers (Porter, 1985, p.137). However, there are also more specialist additions supplied to the industry, such as flavours, fragrances, chemicals, and machinery for cocoa processing and confectionery manufacturing. These suppliers would have more bargaining power than those previously mentioned since the products that they supply are more specialized, and imply higher switching costs (Porter, 1985, p.137). A chocolate manufacturer would, for example, be highly dependent on the company that supplies it with machinery. The supplier would be responsible for things like training employees to use the machinery as well as its service and maintenance. Intensity of Rivalry However, it is the larger players that dominate the market, particularly for chocolate confectionery. Branding plays a key role, particularly in the impulse market. The investment needed to create and maintain a market-leading brand has meant that it is difficult for smaller, or new, players to enter the market. As with other food sectors, there are considerable legislative needs to be met, which requires a larger scale of activity in order to operate profitably. Consumers of chocolate bars and confectionery are very price conscious, especially on basic items. The market is highly competitive and price-cutting is widespread. Retail prices and margins vary widely according to product and outlet. Prices in large food stores, especially for products sold under distributors brands, are much lower than those of products retailed by other miscellaneous shops and this has been an important factor in the growth of own labels in this market. Bargaining Power of Buyers The retail distribution of take-home and eat-later confectionery is basically done through two groups of channels, i.e. multiple grocers and impulse retail channels. Like with most food products, the major multiples have substantial buying power, and often buy directly from chocolate manufacturers. This is primarily because they buy in very large volumes and because they are highly concentrated. It is also because the product is not of strategic importance to the retailer, since large groceries and supermarkets offer a wide range of products and even offer own-brand ranges. The impulse market experiences a higher level of distribution through smaller outlets such as kiosks, confectioners, tobacconists, and food courts. These outlets have much less bargaining power and According to a retail panel, 87 per cent of the value of sales of chocolate bars of all types went through large grocery outlets in 1995 while the market share of small grocers shops was 13 per cent.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Globalization and chronic poverty and health Essay

Globalization and chronic poverty and health - Essay Example ement of people and resources thus results into child labor, loss of middle class jobs, capitalism, destruction of environment, and obliteration of indigenous cultures thereby leading to increased inequality (Milanovic, 667). In this respect, the poor continue to remain poor while the rich continue to accumulate wealth. Persistent inequality results into a vicious cycle of poverty in which the poor cannot take their children to school hence their children will not get better jobs due to increased competition in the job market and will continue with a generation of chronic poverty. Chronic poverty can be defined as a situation in which individuals are experiencing significant incapability deprivations for a longer period of time often more than five years (Hulme and Andrew, 403). Chronic poverty is closely linked to health standards. Research has shown that where there is high poverty index, the health standards are likely to be compromised. This is because individuals are not able to meet the basic nutritional, sanitation and hygienic standards. In this regard, they are left more susceptible to both communicable and non communicable diseases including nutritional deficiencies. Trends in globalization have therefore resulted into increased income inequality therefore leading to persistent chronic poverty and deteriorating health status among the poor. Forces of globalization play a key role in shaping political, economical and social policies that are adopted by governments. In the face of globalization, many poor countries do not gain from the increased interconnectedness because of increased competition hence even domestic policies in poor countries trend to favor developed countries. This inequality results into social injustice for the chronically poor population. Milanovic (669), views social justice as a matter of life and death since it affects the way people live, their consequent chance of illness and their risk of premature death. This is the reason why